Technology-transfer offices and academic open labs as different types of organizational intermediaries in science-society relationshipsValérie MERINDOL, Ignasi CAPDEVILA, E.-P. GALLIÉ
The goal of this article is to investigate the key characteristics of technology transfer offices (TTOs) and academic open labs (AOLs) as intermediaries between science and industry in relation to knowledge production modes 2 and 3 described by Etzkowitz & al (1997) and Carayannis & al (2009). Based on a comparative study in France, we characterize the roles of TTOs and AOLs and the nature of the direct links between firms and academic institutions in which these organizational intermediaries are involved. We also identify how these different types of organizational intermediaries interact. We propose two models of interactions between TTOs and AOLs that have been developed by universities and research organizations: 1) TTOs and AOLs develop links and task coordination; 2) TTOs and AOLs deeply collaborate and have structured complementarities.